FUN WITH WORDS puzzle 

I went to www.talkorigins.com, a pro-evolution site, and copied the following from the site. Then I circled all the words or phrases that to me seemed to be suggesting DESIGN, MEANINGFUL PATTERN, OR INTELLIGENT ACTION in the description of DNA formation or function. How many such words can you find?   What is the point?  There is no way to talk about DNA without talking about design... it just pops out all over the place! Even the phrase DNA CODE is talking about intelligently organized information.   

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2.1 DNA Basics

In one respect the basic structure of DNA resembles that of proteins: both are made of linear chains of varying subunits. Apart from this common feature, DNA structure is quite different from that of proteins. The subunits in DNA are called nucleotides or bases, and the sequence of these nucleotides contains the genetic information specifying the sequence of amino acids in each protein made by the organism. Whereas 20 different amino acids comprise the subunits of proteins, there are only four different nucleotide bases in DNA, generally abbreviated A, T, G and C. According to the "genetic code" deduced by scientists in the 1960s, each amino acid is specified by one or more triplets of nucleotides; for example, the sequence GCG specifies the amino acid alanine. Since there are 64 different triplets (each called a codon) and only 20 amino acids to specify, some amino acids are represented by more than one triplet (e.g. ATA, ATC and ATT all code for the amino acid isoleucine); and three triplets -- TAA, TAG and TGA -- represent "stop codons" that mark the end of the gene sequence that can be used to specify amino acid sequence.

Figure 1. DNA Basics. The central oval represents a cell, within which lies the nucleus. Inside the nucleus, most of the DNA exists as a double helix. The oval at upper left shows an expanded view of the DNA, in which the helices have been drawn "untwisted" to reveal similarity to a ladder. The genetic information is stored in the sequences of nucleotide bases (A, T, G or C) that form the rungs of the ladder. Each rung is formed by a pair of nucleotide bases touching each other, one base attached to one strand backbone, and the other attached to the other strand backbone. An "A" nucleotide always pairs with a "T," and a "G" always pairs with a "C." In order to synthesize a protein, the cell reads the genetic information of the gene for that protein by "transcribing" a molecule of RNA from the gene. For transcription, the strands of the DNA double helix must partially separate so that the bases that form RNA can assemble according to the rules of complementary basepairing. The expanded view at upper right shows the two major differences between RNA and DNA: the RNA backbone strand has a slightly different chemical structure (represented by the dashed line), and a slightly modified form of "T" known as "U" is found in RNA. The transcribed strand of RNA acts as a "messenger" that carries the genetic information from storage in the nucleus to the protein manufacturing modules (represented in the figure by double grey ovals) in the cytoplasm. The expanded view at lower left shows that the sequence of RNA bases is read so that each triplet of bases specifies an amino acid (aa1, aa2, etc.) in the protein. The protein folds into a functional three-dimensional structure that depends on the linear sequence of amino acids.

DNA contains two linear chains in a double-stranded structure that resembles a twisted ladder--the famous "double helix." The vertical beams of the ladder represent a uniform backbone chain which contains no sequence information. As shown in Figure 1 above, the information is stored in the "rungs" of the ladder, which are formed from a pair of nucleotide bases, each sticking out from one vertical backbone strand and touching the base from the opposite strand to form a "rung." The base G on one strand always contacts a base C on the opposite strand; similarly an A always contacts a T. Thus a string of Ts on one strand can "basepair" or "anneal" with a strand containing a string of As to form a double-stranded structure. The sequence of nucleotide bases in one strand is said to be "complementary" to the sequence of the other strand. For any one gene the triplets of bases encoding amino acid sequence are on only one strand. Some genes are encoded on one strand, while other genes lie on the other strand. In most mammalian genes the DNA coding for amino acid sequences is interrupted by segments of apparently meaningless DNA ("introns"). Intron sequences need to be removed before the sequence is used to assemble amino acids; this removal, or splicing, does not occur in the DNA molecule, but in the next stage of information transfer.

In order for a cell to produce a particular protein whose amino acid sequence is encoded in a gene, the sequence information in the DNA must first be copied or "transcribed" into a single-stranded molecule called ribonucleic acid (RNA), as shown above in Figure 1. This initial transcript of RNA undergoes several structural alterations, known collectively as "processing," before it is used to assemble amino acids. These processing steps include the "splicing" out of unnecessary intron segments from the RNA and the addition of nucleotides at one end--the "poly(A) tail"--which promote proper functioning of the RNA in the cell. It is the "processed" RNA that participates directly in the assembly of amino acids into proteins. The transcription of a gene into an RNA copy is very tightly controlled, in part by highly specific regulatory sequences known as promoters that for most genes occur in the DNA just outside the transcribed region but close to the position where the transcription into RNA should start.

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